Besides detailed scholarly works on specific ancient educational institutions (such as those at Nalanda or Taxila), there are more general works like that of A. These span almost a century: from the Dispatch from , to the observations of Max Mueller; and the 1909 remarks of the British labour leader, Keir Hardie.

The recent doctoral thesis pertaining to the various Madras Presidency districts covering this period also does not seem to have made any use of this data, despite the fact that some of it does contain some occasional reference to matters of education.

is not being presented with a view to decry British rule. Smith: Akbar: The Great Mogul, Clarendon Press, 1917, p.394. Indian historical knowledge, by and large, has been derived, at least until recent decades, from the writings and accounts left by foreigners.

Countering Gandhiji and the earlier sources in this manner, Sir Philip Hartog was really not being original.

He was merely following a well-trodden British path in defence of British acts and policies in India; a path which had been charted some 125 years earlier by William Wilberforce, later considered as the father of Victorian England, in the British House of Commons.

The person who, perhaps not only as an individual, but also as a representative of British rule in India, contested what Gandhiji had said was Sir Philip Hartog, one time vice-chancellor of Dacca University, and chairman of the auxiliary committee of the Indian Statutory Commission.

He asked Gandhiji for precise references to the printed documents on which Gandhijis statements were based.Nevertheless, as an introduction, this chapter of Bharat men Angreji Raj is a landmark on the subject of indigenous Indian education in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Nurullah and Naiks book devotes the first 43 pages (out of 643 pages) to discussing the state of indigenous education in the early nineteenth century, and in challenging certain later British views about the nature and extent of it. Leitners work, based on earlier governmental documents and on his own survey, is the most explicitly critical of British policies.Very little, however, has been written on the history, or state of education during this period, starting with the thirteenth century and up until the early nineteenth century. Most of the discussion on the state of indigenous Indian education in the early nineteenth century, and the differing viewpoints which give rise to it, use as their source material (a) the much talked about reports by William Adam, a former Christian missionary, on indigenous education in some of the districts of Bengal and Bihar 1835-8, and (c) published extracts from another wider survey of indigenous education made in the Madras Presidency (from Ganjam in the north to Tinnevelly in the south, and Malabar in the west) during 1822-25. It holds the British authorities responsible for the decay, and even the destruction of indigenous education in the in the past 50-100 years and held the British responsible for it.Rather, it is the continuation of an effort to comprehend, to the extent it is possible for this author, through material of this kind relating to the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, the reality of the of this period: its society, its infra-structure, its manners and institutions, their strengths and weaknesses. This applies equally to our knowledge about the status of Indian education over the past five centuries.The book touches on another aspect of this India in more or less the same manner as the authors two earlier books in this field, Indian Science and Technology in the Eighteenth Century, Furthermore, an attempt has been made in the Introduction to situate the information on the indigenous Indian education of the period in its temporal context and, with that in view, brief mention is made of the state of education in England until the beginning of the nineteenth century. The universities of Taxila and Nalanda, and a few others until recently have been better known and written about primarily because they had been described centuries ago by some Greek or Chinese traveller, who happened to keep a journal which had survived, or had communicated such information to his compatriots who passed it down to our times. D., and more so from about the close of the 16th century.In fact, writings on the subject, initially by British officials-cum-scholars, started to appear as early as the mid-nineteenth century.