Their goodness then, is something distinct from, and added to, their proper essences or being.

Being and the good are, then, objectively the same, every being is good, every good is being.

Our concepts, being and good differ formally: the first simply denotes existence ; the second, existence as a perfection, or the power of contributing to the perfection of a being.

Everything that is, is good because it is; the quantity, if one may use the word loosely, of being or existence which a thing possesses, is at the same time the stock of goodness.

A diminution or an increase of its being is a diminution or increase of its goodness.

This sovereign idea, the Good, is identical with God.

It is not a synthesis of all other ideas but is unique, transcendent, and individual.

The Supreme Good imparts to the intellect the power to perceive, and gives intelligibility to the intelligible. God, the essential and supreme Good, can impart nothing that is not good.

This view leads to the inference that the origin of evil lies beyond the control of God.

The theory leans, therefore, to dualism, and its influence may be traced through the early Gnostic and Manichaean heresies, and, in a minor degree, in the doctrines of the Priscillanists and Albigenses.

Aristotle Starting from the Platonic definition, good is that which all desire, Aristotle, rejecting the Platonic doctrine of a transcendent world of ideas, holds that the good and being are identical; good is not something added to being, it is being.

" In exposing the reply to this question we shall come across the moral good, and the ethical aspect of the problem, which shall be treated in the second place.