The present paper aims to elucidate the conceptual structure of the aesthetics of literature.Following Fechner’s “aesthetics from below” (1876) and adopting a method introduced by Jacobsen, Buchta, Kohler, and Schroeger (2004), we asked 1544 German-speaking research participants to list adjectives that they use to label aesthetic dimensions of literature in general and of individual literary forms and genres in particular (novels, short stories, poems, plays, comedies).He is a member of the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften, and has worked as a visiting Professor at the universities of Jerusalem, Berkeley, Yale, Princeton, Rice, and the EHESS Paris.

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Valentin Wagner is a Senior Research Fellow at the Max-Planck-Institute for Empirical Aesthetics in Frankfurt. Thomas Jacobsen is Professor of Experimental and Biological Psychology at Helmut-Schmidt-University/Uni Bw Hamburg.

He received his degree in Psychology (Diplom-Psychologe) from Freie Universität Berlin in 1994.

High mortality from wars and famine dampened population growth between the sixteenth and late nineteenth centuries.

In the twentieth century, a falling birthrate and emigration led to very low population growth.

In their own language, Finns generally refer to themselves as Suomalaiset and their land or country as Suomi , which may derive from suo , the Finnish expression for a bog or swamp.

Finns constitute the majority of the citizens of the Republic of Finland, which has a Swedish-speaking minority as well as Saami (Lapp) and Rom (Gypsy) minorities.While 75 percent of the population lived in rural areas just before World War II, by the late 1990s, 62 percent of the people were urban dwellers.About a sixth of the population lives in the Helsinki metropolitan area along the south-central coast in the province of Uusimaa.The most closely related languages are Estonian, Votish, Livonian, Vepsian, and the closely allied Karelian dialects of the Balto-Finnic branch.Although Finnish was established as a written language as early as the sixteenth century, its official status in Finland did not become equivalent to that of Swedish until after the Language Ordinance of 1863.Continental weather systems produce harsh cold winters that last up to seven months in the interior eastern and northern districts, yet long summer days permit farming far to the north.