Women in Paraguay have no legal restrictions on holding political office.Women have served in the government as members of the Congress (as National Deputies and as Senators), as governors, as heads of ministries, and there has been one female Supreme Court judge.

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Fertility rates in Paraguay were historically high relative to other countries in the Latin American region.

This has changed since the 1990s, and fertility has recently declined significantly. Research has found that births before marriage are common in Paraguay, although like the fertility rate overall, this phenomenon is decreasing.

The use of modern contraceptive methods, such as birth control pills, condoms and IUDs, increased from a rate of 43% in 1996 to more than 60% by 2004.

Abortion remains illegal in Paraguay, with exceptional cases where it can be demonstrated that the life of the mother is in danger.

The legal and government institutions that currently exist in Paraguay were developed in part through the efforts of feminist organizations in the country that held significant awareness-raising campaigns during the 1990s to formalize the guarantees of women's rights.

The 1992 Constitution of Paraguay upholds the principle of equality for all individuals and prohibits discrimination.In recent years, human trafficking networks organized by Taiwanese and Chinese nationals have been broken up by Paraguayan law enforcement, with Paraguayan women being trafficked to Brazil, Argentina, or Spain to work in brothels.There are no precise estimates of the number of women who are victims of human trafficking, but anecdotal estimates are that several hundred Paraguayan women are smuggled out of the country annually.They are underrepresented in comparison to male members of the government, however, and even relative to the rates of female representation in the governments of other countries of Latin America.Indeed, Paraguay has one of the lowest percentage of women in parliament in Latin America, significantly lower than neighboring Argentina and Bolivia, although higher than Brazil. The legal response of Paraguay to domestic violence has been very weak, even by Latin American standards. 1,600 Against Domestic Violence (Ley No 1.600 contra la Violencia Doméstica), this law - while having a broad definition of domestic violence (including physical, psychological and sexual abuse "lesiones, maltratos físicos, psíquicos o sexuales" ) - is civil in nature, and as such does not provide for any sanctions against the perpetrators.Underage girls are also trafficked within Paraguay and to neighbouring countries to be forced to work as domestic servants.