195) ---Around the Roman Table: Food and Feasting in Ancient Rome, Patrick Faas [Palgrave Mac Millan: New York] 2003 ? Bakers who specialized in this treat were known as the episat mersi, so mersu-making was probably an involved and respected process." ---Cooking in Ancient Civilizations, Cathy K. 254) American pies "As a favored dish of the English, pies were baked in America as soon as the early settlers set up housekeeping on dry land.

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In the cradles of civilization (Mediterranean region including Ancient Rome, Greece, Mesopotamia, Egypt and Arabia) the primary fat was olive oil.

When combined with ground grains, it produced a rudimentary type of pastry.

Pie can be closed, open, small, large, savory or sweet.

The basic concept of pies and tarts has changed little throughout the ages.

603) First pies Food historians confirm ancient people made pastry.

Recipes, cooking techniques, meal presence and presentations varied according to culture and cuisine.The first pies were very simple and generally of the savory (meat and cheese) kind.Flaky pastry fruit-filled turnovers appeared in the early 19th century.Returning crusaders introduced these sweet recipes to Medieval Europe where they were quickly adopted.French and Italian Renaissance chefs are credited for perfecting puff pastry and choux.Cooking methods (baked or fried in ancient hearths, portable colonial/pioneer Dutch ovens, modern ovens), pastry composition (flat bread, flour/fat/water crusts, puff paste, milles feuilles), and cultural preference (pita, pizza, quiche, shepherd's, lemon meringue, classic apple, chocolate pudding).