The guidelines do not, however, override the individual responsibility of health professionals to make appropriate decisions in the circumstances of the individual patients, in consultation with that patient, and, where appropriate and necessary, the patient's guardian or carer.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to atherosclerosis of the arterial vessel wall and to thrombosis is the foremost cause of premature mortality and of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in Europe, and is also increasingly common in developing countries. The main clinical entities are coronary artery disease (CAD), ischaemic stroke, and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Some of these factors relate to lifestyles, such as tobacco smoking, lack of physical activity, and dietary habits, and are thus modifiable.

Other risk factors are also modifiable, such as elevated blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidaemias, or non-modifiable, such as age and male gender.

These forms were compiled into one file and can be found on the ESC website (

Any changes in declarations of interest that arise during the writing period must be notified to the ESC and updated.

After appropriate revisions, it is approved by all the experts involved in the Task Force.

The finalized document is approved by the CPG for publication in the .

[email protected] authors: Željko Reiner (ESC Chairperson), University Hospital Center Zagreb, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Salata 2, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia.

[email protected] summarize and evaluate all available evidence at the time of the writing process on a particular issue with the aim of assisting physicians in selecting the best management strategies for an individual patient, with a given condition, taking into account the impact on outcome, as well as the risk–benefit ratio of particular diagnostic or therapeutic means.

Catapano (EAS Chairperson), Department of Pharmacological Science, University of Milan, Via Balzaretti, 9, 20133 Milano, Italy.